AltUse Find - How to Go Green: Skiing and Snowboarding


How to Go Green: Skiing and Snowboarding

By Brian Merchant Read More
Skiing and snowboarding are such robust, exhilarating outdoor-oriented pastimes that it just seems wrong to not be green when you hit the slopes. You are, after all, taking advantage of nature's generous decision to include snowy, mountainous inclines in its blueprint—so why not minimize your impact when you go?
Thanks to plenty of progressive gear makers and resort owners, being environmentally responsible on your next ski or snowboarding trip won't be an insurmountable challenge. The folks who work in the ski and snowboard industry do so for a reason, remember—they likely love their sport, the outdoors, and the environment. There are a ton of easy ways to make your carbon footprint closer to a barely discernable snowshoe imprint, from supporting resorts dedicated to greening their slopes to picking out gear that's cutting edge both in performance and sustainability.
The skiing and snowboarding industries face a particularly pressing climate change Catch-22: ski resorts are big emissions generators, and those very emissions may very well put them out of business. We do, after all, need snow to snowboard, right? So it's easy to see why some resorts have a bit of a heightened interest in going green.
This guide will help you pick out the ones that are already implementing ecologically responsible initiatives-some have already gone to great lengths to install wind turbines, buy carbon offsets, and implement carpooling programs. We'll also look at some stellar green gear like solar-paneled ski suits and bamboo boards, point out some of the most egregious eco-offenders (can you say "indoor ski resort"?) and advocate greener, crowd-less cross country skiing and riding. Even better, from online watchdog green groups to cheap carbon offset movements, there are already well-oiled organizations, communities, and programs in place to aid the eco-conscious skier.
Of course, there will also still be some frightening facts to face; sad, slippery slopes of truth about snowfall rates going downhill is just one of them. Some of the more foreboding projections predict a snow-less mountain where the Winter Olympics-hosting Park City resort once stood in Utah-in under a century. But take heart-helping to turn the tide can be simple and painless.
So strap in, and get ready to ski and ride green.

AltUse Find - China Blistering Past US in Green Investment


China Blistering Past US in Green Investment By Leon Kaye | March 29th, 2010 Read More

The Pew Charitable Trusts released a study showing that for the first time, China is leading the United States in green technology investment.  Considering that China is four times the size of US, the study may not be surprising, but the pace at which Chinese investment has increased is certainly shocking.  Five years ago, the Chinese had only invested about US $2.5 billion in green and clean technologies.  But in 2009, that figure had soared to US $34.6 billion, almost twice that of the United States, which lagged at US $18.6.
The Pew study found that countries with strong and clear national policies, mandated clean energy quotas, prioritized loans for renewable energy projects and a carbon market, were leaders in the green technology revolution.  Hence Germany, Brazil, Spain, the UK, and China have the largest clean energy industries when measured as a percentage of their economies.  Countries without such a policy frameworkare falling behind:  Japan, Australia, and the United States fall into this group.  So when using renewable energies’ percentage of a national economy, China comes in third. And the United States?  A laggardly eleventh.
Many factors are at play here.  China has a strong national industrial policy, while the United States is really a federation of 50 different governments, each with a different agenda and often at loggerheads with Washington, DC.  China reaps about 700,000 newly graduated engineers annually, but the United States still struggles educating its students in the sciences.  Finally, as the US Congress has been bogged down in the details over climate change and cap-and-trade legislation, Chinese leaders established aggressive renewable energy targets that aim to cope with China’s growing demand for energy.
Whatever the reasons behind China’s surging renewable energy investment may be, the Pew’s researchers have weakened US leaders’ claims that it is unfair to give China and India a “pass” on emission reductions while the US is pressed to reduce its carbon footprint.  Lecturing developing countries to stop dirtying the air rings hallow when it is clear that China, for example, is a leader in technologies like solar and wind.  Visit any large solar technology conference, and Chinese vendors cram exhibit hall space.  Search through Twitter, and Tiny URLs taking you to new Chinese wind energy farms crop up.  While the occasional American touts his tankless water heater, solar water heaters are ubiquitous on house and apartment roofs in China.
While it is easy to fret over these numbers, the Pew data indicate promising trends worldwide.  Renewable energy investments increased 230 percent since 2005; 250 gigawatts of renewable energy has been generated worldwide, creating 6% of the world’s energy needs; and the G20 nations’ production of renewable energy has climbed 50% in the past 5 years.
But if you are bilingual in Chinese and English and have an engineering background, China may be the land where you can find your fortune.

AltUse Find - Alternative Use for Matzoh

Happy Passover and an Alternative Use for Matzoh?

AltUse Find - A Home Built Out of Trash and Millions of Beer Bottles

BY ARIEL SCHWARTZThu Mar 4, 2010 Read More
Recycled bottles can be turned into some pretty innovative things--World Cup jerseys orcrude oil, for example. But what about bottles that roll around the sidewalk, destined to eventually end up in the trash bin? One man from Quilmes, Argentina has gathered up 6 million of those stray glass bottles over the past 19 years to build the home you see here.

La Casa de Botellas
According to artist Tito Ingenieri, La Casa de Botellas has proven useful in more ways than one. The bottles adorning the house whistle when southern winds blow in, so Ingenieri knows when the river is rising. But while the bottle house may be an excellent example of repurposing old materials, we have to wonder about its safety. In the event of a natural disaster, the house would literally shatter. And you know what they say about people in glass houses.

AltUse Reminder - Earth Hour March 27, 2010


MISSION, HISTORY & EARTH HOUR 2010

On Earth Hour hundreds of millions of people, organizations, corporations and governments around the world will come together to make a bold statement about their concern for climate change by doing something quite simple—turning off their lights for one hour. In the U.S. where we are already feeling the impacts of climate change, Earth Hour sends a clear message that Americans care about this issue and want to turn the lights out on dirty air, dangerous dependency on foreign oil and costly climate change impacts, and make the switch to cleaner air, a strong economic future and a more secure nation. Read More
Participation is easy. By flipping off your lights on March 27th at 8:30 p.m. local time you will be making the switch to a cleaner, more secure nation and prosperous America. View thetoolkits, to find out what else you can do to get involved including leading the Earth Hour movement in your community.

SET YOUR CLOCK

On Saturday, March 27, 2010 at 8:30 p.m. local time, Earth Hour will once again cascade around the globe, from New Zealand to Hawaii

SPARKING A MOVEMENT

Since its inception three years ago, Earth Hour’s non-partisan approach has captured the world’s imagination and became a global phenomenon. Nearly one billion people turned out for Earth Hour 2009 – involving 4,100 cities in 87 countries on seven continents.
Last year, 80 million Americans and 318 U.S. cities officially voted for action with their light switch, joining iconic landmarks from around the world that went dark for Earth Hour, including:
  • Empire State Building
  • Brooklyn Bridge
  • Broadway Theater Marquees
  • Las Vegas Strip
  • United Nations Headquarters
  • Golden Gate Bridge
  • Seattle’s Space Needle
  • Church of Latter-Day Saints Temple
  • Gateway Arch in St. Louis
  • Great Pyramids of Giza
  • Acropolis and Parthenon in Athens
  • Christ the Redeemer Statue in Rio de Janeiro
  • St. Peter’s Basilica in Vatican City
  • Big Ben and Houses of Parliament in London
  • Elysee Palace and Eiffel Tower in Paris
  • Beijing’s Birds Nest and Water Cube
  • Symphony of Lights in Hong Kong
  • Sydney’s Opera House

AltUse Find - Sustainability isn't merely academic



Pitzer College sustainable landscape by Nan Sterman - latimes.com Read More


"Sustainability" is the buzzword on college campuses across the country, where LEED-certified buildings are the new standard. Pitzer College in Claremont, however, takes sustainability to a new level. Tour Pitzer's campus, and along with its LEED dormitories, you'll see the "trayless" dining hall where students scrape leftovers into compost receptacles. The school runs a "green bike" program that refurbishes and redistributes abandoned bicycles each school year.

And Pitzer has a gorgeous, sustainable landscape.
Joe Clements, manager of Pitzer's arboretum and grounds, came to the college in 2000 from the Huntington Library, Art Collections and Botanical Gardens, where he was in charge of the renowned desert garden. At Pitzer, Clements says, "we grow plants for our semi-arid climate. We look for plants from Mediterranean regions, native California plants and succulent plants."
Clements' work continues a tradition that dates to the 1970s, when professor John Rodman founded the college's environmental studies program.
Rodman was a political science professor who, in that time of environmental awareness, rallied faculty, staff and students around the issue of environmental responsibility. They began a movement to preserve native plants and create gardens across the 31-acre campus. Today the John R. Rodman Arboretum comprises 16 themed gardens.
As Clements walks about the campus, he and the students greet one another by name. That might be unusual on other campuses, but at Pitzer, students are actively involved in campus landscape projects.
A few years ago, some students decided that an unused lawn by a lecture hall was a waste of resources. One night, they surreptitiously tore out grass and planted fruit trees.
"We live in a dry climate," says Jane Philips, a senior who was one of the tree-planters. "We shouldn't be watering grass we don't use. We wanted the space to be used as an outdoor classroom instead of a wasted space."
The students' efforts caught the eye of the administration and of environmental studies professor Paul Faulstich, a cultural anthropologist who studies the relationship between environmental degradation and human behavior.
"The students were interested in bringing thoughtful environmental ideas and practices to our living and learning," Faulstich says. "Pitzer is a place that wants to foster that kind of thinking and achieve that vision."
With Faulstich's support, the students embarked on an extensive effort to transform the football-field-size lawn into a series of gardens. One semester, independent study students created a concept and plant list. The next semester, Faulstich taught a class in which students, including Philips, developed the design. The students shepherded the plans, refined by a landscape architect, through the city of Claremont's permit process.
Once the permits were in hand, 40 students worked with Clements and a local contractor, Casey Jones, to transform the lawn. They removed grass and helped grade the site.
As they dug, they unearthed countless rocks and boulders. Claremont sits in an alluvial fan, so the soil is filled with rounded rocks that Clements fondly refers to as "Claremont potatoes." They make for frustrating and difficult digging but beautiful dry streambeds, which is exactly how the students used them. They also positioned boulders as benches for their outdoor classroom.
The new gardens represent six native habitats: riparian, chaparral, grasslands, oak woodland, coastal sage scrub and desert.
The desert garden is a nice transition to surrounding areas where Clements has planted enormous, sculptural succulents. He favors aloes, agaves, euphorbias and many rare plants with bright colors, complex shapes and textures. His gardens look like living art installations.
Some of Pitzer's oldest gardens are near the Grove House, a student-run coffeehouse in a classic California bungalow moved to the campus about 20 years ago. On one side, a citrus grove pays homage to the bungalow's prior existence.
Behind the bungalow, the Farm Project Garden and Orchard sits in what was, until 1994, a parking lot. Students, faculty and staff used jackhammers, pickaxes and shovels to transform the asphalt into an organic garden. To an outsider, it looks random and informal. But a student manager determines what needs to be done and doles out chores to student volunteers.
The centerpiece of the garden is a chicken house, where a small flock produces eggs.
Eggs and vegetables are available on the honor system, though people are asked to harvest in moderation.
The fresh food is most appreciated by students not on a college meal plan, says Dean Pospisil, who is on leave from his studies but still comes to campus to turn mountains of compost from garden trimmings and dining hall scraps.
Turning compost is hard work, and it smells funky, but "is a lot of fun," Pospisil says. "With six people working a couple hours a week, we can easily process the food waste of thousands of people, something like 17 tons of food each year. In terms of carbon sequestration, it isn't that impressive, but we think it is the right way to do things. Otherwise, that food waste would have gone to the dump and become methane that goes into the atmosphere."
Encouraging this kind of sustainable thinking is exactly what Pitzer strives toward, according to President Laura Trombley.
"Pitzer has always been known for cutting-edge approach and engagement," she says.
Sustainable living is also a commitment Trombley takes personally.
When she moved into the president's house in 2002, Trombley says, "It was a 1911 Cape Cod with a faux English rose garden. I thought, ‘Why on earth do we have this?' Four years ago, my husband tore out the gardens and put in desert plantings. Our water consumption dropped 60% the first year and there is no maintenance."
Now that is sustainable.


AltUse Reminder Spring starts March 20, 2010


Spring is one of the four temperate seasons, the transition period between winter and summer. Spring and "springtime" refer to the season, and broadly to ideas of rebirth, renewal and regrowth. The specific definition of "spring" as a season differs, however, among scientific disciplines such as astronomy and meterorology, and in cultural and human terms. The exact definitions are explored below. Read More
As it refers to climate and the earth's position in the solar system relative to the sun, spring days are close to 12 hours long with day length increasing as the season progresses. In the Northern Hemisphere, spring runs from mid-March to mid-June, and in theSouthern Hemisphere it runs from mid-September to mid-December.
In astronomical terms, spring begins with the vernal equinox, usually 20 March in the Northern Hemisphere and 22 September in the Southern Hemisphere, when the sun crosses the equator on its journey toward the Tropic of Cancer or the Tropic of Capricorn. Spring lasts until the start of summer at the summer solstice.
Although the astronomical definition is precise, the moment when spring begins does not correlate exactly with changes in weather — the apparent change of seasons. Daytime temperatures lag behind the energy delivered to earth by the sun (insolation) by several weeks, because the earth and sea have thermal latency and take time to warm up.
Meteorologists generally define four seasons in many climatic areas, winter, spring, summer and autumn (or fall). These are demarcated by the values of their average temperatures on a monthly basis, with each season lasting three months. The three warmest months are by definition summer, the three coldest months are winter, and the intervening gaps are spring and autumn. Spring, when defined in this manner, can start on different dates in different regions. In most Northern Hemisphere locations, spring occurs during the months of March, April and May[1]. (Summer is June, July, August; Autumn is September, October, November; Winter is December, January, February.) The vast majority of Southern Hemisphere locations will have opposing seasons with spring in September, October and November.[2]
Some cultures, such as those who devised the Celtic and East Asian calendars, call the spring equinox mid-spring, but others (especially in the USA and sometimes in England) regard it as the "first day of spring". For most temperate regions, signs of spring appear long before the middle of March, but the folklore of 21 March being the "first day of spring" persists, and 21 June as the "first day of summer" is common in the USA. In South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, spring begins on 1 September, and has no relation to the vernal equinox.[3]

In East Asian Solar term, spring begins on 4 February and ends on 5 May. Similarly, according to the Celtic tradition, which is based solely on daylight and the strength of the noon sun, spring begins in early February (near Imbolc or Candlemas) and continues until early May (Beltane).
The phenological definition of spring relates to indicators, the blossoming of a range of plant species, and the activities of animals, or the special smell of soil that has reached the temperature for micro flora to flourish. It therefore varies according to the climate and according to the specific weather of a particular year.
Wikipedia® 

AltUse Find - More About Chalk

Chalk (pronounced /ˈtʃɔːk/) is a soft, white, porous sedimentary rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. It forms under relatively deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite plates (coccoliths) shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores. It is common to find chert nodules embedded in chalk. Chalk can also refer to other compounds including magnesium silicate and calcium sulfate. Read More

Chalk is resistant to weathering and slumping compared to the clays with which it is usually associated, thus forming tall steep cliffs where chalk ridges meet the sea. Chalk hills, known as chalk downland, usually form where bands of chalk reach the surface at an angle, so forming a scarp slope. Because chalk is porous it can hold a large volume of ground water, providing a natural reservoir that releases water slowly through dry seasons.

Chalk has long been quarried in England, providing building material and marl for fields. In southeast England, Deneholes are a notable example of ancient chalk pits.

The Chalk Group is a European stratigraphic unit deposited during the late Cretaceous Period. It forms the famous White Cliffs of Dover in Kent, England. The Champagne region of France is mostly underlain by chalk deposits, which contain artificial caves used for wine storage.

Wikipedia® 

AltUse Find - The History of ARM & HAMMER Baking Soda


The Story or ARM & HAMMER
Read More
When you think of ARM & HAMMER® Baking Soda, you think of our little yellow box. That box has a lot of history – and the high quality it represents is appreciated by a new generation. For more than 155 years, people have chosen pure, versatile, effective, environmentally safe and economical ARM & HAMMER® Baking Soda for baking and countless household & personal care uses.

Today's consumers appreciate that ARM & HAMMER® Baking Soda is an effective, yet gentle cleaner and a real alternative to using harsh chemicals - which makes it great for use around food, pets and kids! And those attributes never go out of style.

ARM & HAMMER® Baking Soda is also environmentally safe, and can be used to replace other household and personal items which may have ingredients that are harmful to the environment.

ARM & HAMMER® Baking Soda – pure, versatile, effective, environmentally safe and economical. Evidence that good solutions for your home, your family and your body are timeless.

Follow our Timeline to see how ARM & HAMMER® Baking Soda, and our company, has developed over the years.



Timeline:
For more than 155 years, Church & Dwight Co., Inc., makers of
ARM & HAMMER® Baking Soda, has been a fixture in your home. Our yellow box is so familiar and our logo is one of the most trusted trademarks. Follow our Timeline to see how ARM & HAMMER® Baking Soda, and our company, has developed over the years.

Here are some highlights from our history: CLICK TO LAUNCH TIMELINE 

AltUse News - About Saint Patrick's Day


Saint Patrick's Day (Irish: Lá Fhéile Pádraig) is a yearly holiday celebrated on 17 March.


It is named after Saint Patrick (circa AD 387–461), the most commonly recognized of the patron saints of Ireland. It began as a purely Catholic holiday and became an official feast day in the early 1600s. However, it has gradually become more of a secular celebration of Ireland's culture.


The Chicago River is dyed green each year for the St. Patrick's Day celebration, shown here in 2008.


It is a public holiday on the island of Ireland (both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland) and widely celebrated by the Irish diaspora in places such as Great Britain, Canada, the United States, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, and Montserrat.

Wikipedia® 

AltUse Find - Green Beer for St. Patrick’s Day March 17, 2010

Ingredients:

1.) One 12oz. Beer - any beer will do although lighter colored beers will display the green better
2.) Green food coloring - one drop 
Preparation: 
1.) Add one drop of green food coloring to a clear glass. Pour the beer into the glass.

That's it! This works for any beer. Darker beers like stout will have a nice green head atop their normally dark bodies.

Starting in 2007, daylight time begins in the United States on the second Sunday in March and ends on the first Sunday in November. On the second Sunday in March, clocks are set ahead one hour at 2:00 a.m. local standard time, which becomes 3:00 a.m. local daylight time. On the first Sunday in November, clocks are set back one hour at 2:00 a.m. local daylight time, which becomes 1:00 a.m. local standard time. These dates were established by Congress in the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Pub. L. no. 109-58, 119 Stat 594 (2005).
Not all places in the U.S. observe daylight time. In particular, Hawaii and most of Arizona do not use it. Indiana adopted its use beginning in 2006.
Year Begin End
2006 April 2 October 29
2007 * March 11 November 4
2008 March 9 November 2
2009 March 8 November 1
2010 March 14 November 7
2011 March 13 November 6
2012 March 11 November 4
2013 March 10 November 3
2014 March 9 November 2
2015 March 8 November 1
* New law went into effect.
Many other countries observe some form of "summer time", but they do not necessarily change their clocks on the same dates as the U.S.
Daylight time and time zones in the U.S. are defined in the U.S. Code, Title 15, Chapter 6, Subchapter IX - Standard Time.

History of Daylight Time in the U.S.

Although standard time in time zones was instituted in the U.S. and Canada by the railroads in 1883, it was not established in U.S. law until the Act of March 19, 1918, sometimes called the Standard Time Act. The act also established daylight saving time, a contentious idea then. Daylight saving time was repealed in 1919, but standard time in time zones remained in law. Daylight time became a local matter. It was re-established nationally early in World War II, and was continuously observed from 9 February 1942 to 30 September 1945. After the war its use varied among states and localities. The Uniform Time Act of 1966 provided standardization in the dates of beginning and end of daylight time in the U.S. but allowed for local exemptions from its observance. The act provided that daylight time begin on the last Sunday in April and end on the last Sunday in October, with the changeover to occur at 2 a.m. local time.
During the "energy crisis" years, Congress enacted earlier starting dates for daylight time. In 1974, daylight time began on 6 January and in 1975 it began on 23 February. After those two years the starting date reverted back to the last Sunday in April. In 1986, a law was passed that shifted the starting date of daylight time to the first Sunday in April, beginning in 1987. The ending date of daylight time was not subject to such changes, and remained the last Sunday in October. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 changed both the starting and ending dates. Beginning in 2007, daylight time starts on the second Sunday in March and ends on the first Sunday in November.
For a very readable account of the history of standard and daylight time in the U.S., see
Ian R. Bartky and Elizabeth Harrison: "Standard and Daylight-saving Time", Scientific American, May 1979 (Vol. 240, No. 5), pp. 46-53.

AltUse Find - Hannoch Piven; Creating Art From Everyday Items

About Hannoch Piven: I make illustrations with found objects. Been doing it for like 17 years. More
It's sort of like a game but somehow :0 I support a family doing it. I have worked for magazines, newspapers, in the USA, in Europe and in Israel, I have created kid books, ad campaigns, book jackets and Record Covers. But perhaps the most gratifying part of my carrer (so far) has happenned in the past 5 years when I have become very active in teaching: not art students and not in an art school, but just 'regular' people, without the so-called 'artistic talent'. Even though my way of working is really tailored around my personal advantages and my weak points, I have come to realize it is an accesible tool for many people to communicate and express themselves. In this Blog I hope to bring a bit of all these 2 worlds in which I'm involved: the one in which I create and the one in which I help bringing other people to create. If you want a more 'official' bio please go here: http://www.pivenworld.com

AltUse Find - Duct Tape


Duct tape is a vinyl, reinforced, multi-purpose pressure sensitive tape with a soft and flexible shell and pressure sensitive adhesive. It is generally silver or black in color but many other colors have recently become available. With a standard width of 178 inches (48 mm), duct tape was originally developed during World War II in 1942 as a water resistant sealing tape for ammunition cases. Permacel, then a division of Johnson & Johnson, used a rubber-based adhesive to help the tape resist water and a fabric backing to add strength. It was also used to repair military equipment quickly, including jeepsfirearms, and aircraft because of these properties. Read More
In military circles, this variant is known as "gun-tape", typically olive-green, and also known for its resistance to oils and greases. It is also called "Riggers Tape", "Hurricane Tape", or "100-mph tape",[1] – a name that comes from the use of a specific variety of duct tape that was supposed to hold up to 100 mph winds. Another version attributes this to the fact that soldiers often refer to something that exceeds expectations as "High Speed."
In Germany the tape is commonly known as "Panzerband" (tank-tape), a name which emphasizes its general toughness, or "Gaffer/Gaffa-Tap.

Common uses

It is commonly used in situations that require a strong, flexible, long lasting adhesive, particularly when exposure to the elements is a concern.
A more specialized product, commonly known as gaffer tape, is preferred in entertainment circles, as it does not leave a sticky residue when removed and is more easily torn into thin strips for precise application.
Duct tape, in its guise as "racer's tape", has been used in motorsports for more than 40 years to repair fiberglass bodywork. Racer's tape comes in a wide range of colors to help match it to common paint colors.[2] In the UK it is usually referred to as "tank tape" in motorsports use.

Usage in spaceflight


NASA engineers and astronauts have used duct tape in the course of their work, including in some emergency situations. One such usage occurred in 1970, when the square carbon dioxide filters from Apollo 13's failed command module had to be modified to fit round receptacles in the lunar module, which was being used as a lifeboat after an explosion en route to the moon. A workaround was made using duct tape and other items on board Apollo 13, with the ground crew relaying directions to the spacecraft and its crew. The lunar module CO2 scrubbers started working again, saving the lives of the three astronauts on board.
Ed Smylie, who designed the scrubber modification in just two days, said later that he knew the problem was solvable when it was confirmed that duct tape was on the spacecraft: "I felt like we were home free", he said in 2005. "One thing a Southern boy will never say is, 'I don't think duct tape will fix it.'"[4]
Duct tape was also used aboard Apollo 17 to improvise a repair to a damaged fender on the lunar rover, preventing possible damage from the rooster tails of lunar dust as they drove.[5]
In a 2001 NASA manual for spaceflight operations aboard the International Space Station, duct tape is even called for in case of "acute psychosis" during a space mission; NASA procedures call for the use of duct tape to restrain the affected astronaut.

Usage on ductwork

To provide lab data about which sealants and tapes last, and which are likely to fail, research was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Their major conclusion was that one should not use duct tape to seal ducts (specialty tapes are available for this purpose). (They defined duct tape as any fabric-based tape with rubber adhesive.) The testing done shows that under challenging but realistic conditions, duct tapes become brittle and may fail.[7]Commonly duct tape carries no safety certifications such as UL or Proposition 65, which means the tape can violently burn, produce toxic smoke, ingestion and contact toxicity, irregular mechanical strength, and low life expectancy for the adhesive on the tape. Its use in ducts has been prohibited by the state of California[8] and by building codes in most other places in the U.S. However, metalized and aluminum tapes used by professionals are still often called "duck/duct tapes".